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AAMC Sample Test
#1 Posted : Friday, July 23, 2021 1:04:53 AM
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Q8) Can you please explain why option C is incorrect? My thinking for ruling out B would be that blocking the action can be dangerous in places where that initiation is required

Does mRNA stand for messenger or mature RNA?

21) Though there is a high level of proinsulin, how can we make the assumption that most of it will be converted to insulin?

26) Because we know that D and L amino acids are found in nature, why is it only limited to L amino acids?

28) Quick question regarding the answer explanation here not the question. It states 38 ATP are produced, but in our notes it mentions 32 ATP. Which number should we go with?

58) Can you please explain this concept. I don't seem to understand the hydrophobic effect and entropic penalty.
#2 Posted : Friday, July 23, 2021 3:26:44 PM
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8. You would use the ruling out method here. Option B is the best answer so to save time you do not need to rationalize all the rest. Option B: "Antibody B can block the initiation of events that result in the release of harmful, biologically active molecules." It specifices that it is harmful molecules, so do not overthink this answer. Option B being blocked is actually beneficial as it reduces tissue injury, neutrophil adherence with toxic molecule release. Blocking these unfavourable outcomes before they occur is the most effective treatment. Option C is incorrent and you can tell without even reading the passage based on the wording "it will not recognize anything other than the beta subunit" this is too specific.

Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a molecule that provides cells with instructions for making proteins.

21. Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas. Hormone precursors with the prefix "pro" will always be converted to to the hormone i.e. insulin based on need and feedback mechanisms.

26. For this answer you have to interpret and reason within the study. Only L isomers are used to form proteins during ribosomal protein synthesis. You know this from the statement "ime course experiments were performed across a range of different L-alanine concentrations to determine the kinetics of amino acid transport in larval Linckia and Odontaster at the appropriate temperature for each species" and Figure 1 of this passage that reflects the increase in transport rate. If you use anything other than L (which was specified in the study to increase) you will have inhibited protein synthesis. You come to this answer based on reasoning from the passage as it specifies L.

28. Cellular aerobic respiration makes a net ATP of 38. You get about 32 ATP just from 1 glucose.

58. The hydrophobic effect is the tendency of non-polar molecules and molecular segments in an aqueous solution to avoid the contact with water molecules. The hydrophobic effect is responsible for the separation of a mixture of oil and water into its two components. The entropic penalty refers to the ordered shell or clathrate of water molecules that must form around a hydrophobic residue on the protein surface. That's why proteins fold with hydrophobic cores - this reduces the entropic penalty that must be paid.
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