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Genetics Questions
Moiz_6047
#1 Posted : Sunday, May 30, 2021 12:15:02 AM
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Hi,

I had some genetics concepts for further clarification:

1) Is everything (transcription, translation, replication) read in the 3' to 5' direction and made in the 5' to 3' direction? What does it mean regarding the key concept on page #62 of CC?

2) Does RNA Pol move in the 3' to 5' direction to reach the tata box?

3) Are stop codons in transcription the same ones in translation?

4) For translation are codons read in the 5' to 3' or vice versa? Are we considering the reading the reading in relation to the mRNA or tRNA?

5) What is translocation? (page 71 in cc)

6) Is it correct to assume that we have 64 different codons but only 61 can code for proteins because 3 are stop codons?

7) If epigenetics does not change the DNA how can epigenetics change the chromatin structure?

8) What is the difference between genome and gene?

9) In the cc it says the germ cells are diploid, but in the textbook it says that germ cells are haploid? Can you please confirm?

10) After mitosis we created a cell which is diploid, after meiosis 1 why is the cell haploid and not diploid?

11) What is the relationship between fertilization and meiosis in eggs? Does fertilization happen after meiosis 1 and meiosis 2? Where does ovulation fit in?

12) If centrioles are made in the 9+2 arrangement why is the MTOC made of 13 tubulin proteins?
INSTR_Molly_129
#2 Posted : Sunday, May 30, 2021 5:25:04 PM
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Hey Moiz, thanks for putting together your questions, its super organized!

1) All DNA polymerases read 3'-->5' and synthesize 5' to 3'. Page 62 is a reiteration of that concept, that all nucleotide based processes go 5'-->3' except reading by DNA polymerase.

2) RNA transcription occurs 5'-->3'. The TATA box is located upstream to the code of interest (at the 5' end).

3) No; stop codons are unique to the translation of the RNA code to protein, while transcription stops are coded into the DNA code. The stop mechanism has more to do with the physical characteristics of the RNA that is generated that helps to separate polymerase from reading the DNA strand.

4) RNA translation occurs 5' to 3', so the codons are read 5' to 3'. This reading is in relation to the mRNA.

5) Translocation is the movement (new location) of the ribosome to the next codon, towards the 3' end.

6) Yeah you can say it like that; but remember that the tRNA code table will depend on the species you are looking at. Some species have different tRNA tables, so I can't guarantee on the exact number. Stop codons don't code for AA if that's what you are wondering.

7) Epigenetics don't change the sequence, but it changes the access to the sequence of DNA. So yes, it affects chromatin structure.

8) Genome = the set of chromosomes an organism has, Gene = one area of the genome that codes for something specifically.

9) Germ cells are halploid... can you tell me what page you saw this on? I'll have someone look at it. Thank you!

10) Meiosis I is still diploid. When meiosis II occurs, the cells will become haploid as no additional replication of genome will occur.

11) Meiosis I is complete in females by the time birth occurs. Meiosis II occurs when ovulation is occuring, and stops at Metaphase II unless fertilized.

12) I heard this question in one of the sessions, and the instructor said that its not important to know this detail, and that if you need to know it, it will be talked about in the passage. Centrioles are 9+2 is what's important to know.

Hope this all helped, happy studying!

Cheers,

Molly
Moiz_6047
#3 Posted : Tuesday, June 01, 2021 3:52:31 AM
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Thanks Molly,

Just to confirm:

1) DNA & RNA are read 3' to 5' but synthesized 5' to 3'?
2)Proteins are made 5' to 3' and codons are read 5' to 3'?
3) I saw that germ cells are diploid on page 86 of cc
INSTR_Shinthujah_131
#4 Posted : Thursday, June 03, 2021 4:26:11 PM
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Hi Moiz,

1) Yes, DNA and RNA are read 3' to 5' but synthesized 5' to 3'
2) Codons in the mRNA are read 5' to 3' to synthesize proteins.
3) Germ cells (eggs and sperm) are haploid.

Hope this helps!
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